विषय प्रवेश

१ तारिख नोवेम्बर २०१७ मा पछिल्लो पटक अपडेट गरिएको

यो व्लग मैले विभिन्न स्रोत संकलन गरेर लेखेको हुँ । ठकुरीहरूको एतिहासिक आधार र स्रोत के हो भनेर खोज्ने प्रयास पनि गरेको छु l यस लेखमा  दिनहुँ  शव्द र भाषालाई मिलाएर नयाँ विचार राखेर  लेख अपडेट गर्ने जमर्को गरेको छु । यसलाई  पढेर गल्ति औलाई दिनु हुन सम्बन्धित पक्षलाइ  अनुरोध छ । सुझाव र सल्लाहले  लेखनलाई पूर्ण अब्बल बनाउने जिम्मा पाठक वर्गलाई सुम्पने प्रण गर्दछु ।  जय दर्शन ।

ठकुरी को हो ( Who is Thakuri in Nepal ) ?

नेपालका बिभिन्न जात जातिहरु मध्य ठकुरी एउटा परिचित र विवादित जात समुह हो भनिएको छ । राजा माहाराजाको जात पनि ठकुरी हो भनेर संधै ठकुरी भन्नासाथ सामन्त परिवारका ठुला र ठालु जाती भन्ने गरिन्छ । इतिहासको महत्वपुर्ण समयमा महत्वपुर्ण ऐतिहासिक  भुमिका खेलेको   यस जातिलाई धेरै देशी र विदेशी विद्वानले विभिन्न जाति वा  वर्ग संग दाजेर हेरेका छन् । मुलत गण्डक क्षेत्र मा मगर र सुदुरपश्चिम तिर खस क्षेत्री जातिसंग नजिक मानिएको भनेर लेख्ने लेखकहरुको बाक्लो उपस्थिति छ । केहि देशी विदेशीले खस क्षेत्री  जाति संग नभई नेपालको अहिले भनिएका मगर जनजातीसंग दाजेर हेरेको पाइन्छ । यस संदर्वमा  धेरै ठकुरीलाई आफु को हो थाह नै छैन उनीहरुलाई सोध्यो भने पनि यसको उत्तर पटक्कै आउदैन, कहिले कुसुण्डा त कहिले बाबुसाहेब भनेर विशेषता पाउने यो जाति आफैले आफैलाई सन्तोष जनक ब्याख्या गर्न सक्दैनन । इतिहास विद सुर्य मणि अधिकारीले मगरातका मगर राजाहरुले खान,  सेन, शाही, शाह र समाल धारण गरेर ठकुरी भएको कुरा स्पष्ट उल्लेख गरेका छन् ।  तर  सुदुर पश्चिम तिरका ठकुरीहरू बाहुन क्षेत्री समुहसँग नजिक देखाउन हानाथाप गर्ने यो जातिलाई सवैधानिक कानुनका ज्ञाता डा. विपिन अधिकारीले पनि सुदुर पश्चिमका ठकुरीहरूलाइ हेरेर नेपालका  खस जाति भन्ने मिनी पुस्तकमा ठकुरी खस समुदाय भित्र पर्दछन भनेर लेखेका छन्  । विषेश गरि मध्यपश्चिम देखि पूर्वका धेरै ठकुरीहरु खस क्षेत्री  जाति देखि उच्च ठालु वर्गमा प्रमोसन भएको कुरालाई मान्न तयार छैनन् ।  तर केहि ठकुरीहरु  उनीहरु आफैले आफ्नो  पहिचान व्याख्यान्न गर्न नै सक्दैनन । कुनै अर्को जातिले सोध्यो भने वा  ठकुरी को हो भन्ने प्रश्नको उत्तरमा वाहुन क्षेत्री जस्तो हो क्या भन्ने अपुरो शव्द वकालिंछ | वा ठकुरी पनि मगर वा गुरुङ जस्तै हो भनेर अधुरो उत्तर आउछ , आखिर को हो ठकुरी ?
यहा यसको लागि अर्को उदाहरण पनि राखिएको छ |
१. यो त कस्तो बाहुन जस्तो नाक चुच्चो चुच्चो रहेछ दारी जुँगा पनि फुस्स झुसे जस्तो नै छ , कुनै एक ठकुरीलाई  'तपाई बाहुन कि क्षेत्री हो' भन्ने प्रश्न को  प्रति उत्तर मा होइन म ठकुरी हो भन्ने  उत्तर आऊछ ,  यो त ठकुरी होइन होला कतै मिसिएको पो हो कि  प्रति प्रश्न यस्तो पनि आउछ, होइन र  ?
२. अर्को यो चाही त गुरुङ र मगर जस्तो रहेछ, कस्तो ठ्याक्कै भोटे जस्तो देखिएको । यस्तै प्रकारको कुनै एक ठकुरीलाई ' तपाई मगर हो कि गुरुङ हो नि' भन्ने प्रश्नको उत्तरमा गुरुङ मगर होइन म ठकुरी हो उत्तर आउछ , यो त ठकुरी होइन होला कतै मिसिएको पो हो कि  प्रति प्रश्न यसो पनि आउछ , होइन र ? 
माथिको दुवै प्रशंगमा  ठकुरी भित्रको आकलन सजिलै अनुमान गर्न सकिन्छ तर यसको उत्तर सस्तो ढंगले दिएर ठकुरी पनि बाहुन क्षेत्री जस्तै हुन भनेर अर्थाइएको हामीले धेरै इतिहास पढ्यौ | कुनै क्षेत्रीको पद देखि उच्च भएको वा जाति माथि  उठेको ठालुहरु ठकुरी भएका हुन भनेर प्रोफेसोर र शिक्षकहरुले विश्वोविधालय र विद्यालयका  कक्षा कोठामा घोकाएका छन् | धेरै इतिहासका कितावहरु यस्तै सस्ता विषय वस्तुको कुरौटे र अवास्तविक विषय वस्तुलाई  महंगा मुल्यमा विक्री गरेको हाम्रो अगाडी जिउदो प्रमाणहरु छन् । उसोत ठकुरीहरु राज्य शक्तिका भोगी हुनाले यिनले अहिले कथित भनिएका जनजाती  महिलालाई विविध प्रलोभन पारेर भित्रयानी बनाए , विवाह गरे अनि उनीहरु देखि जन्मेको शिशु जम्मै अहिले कथित  भनिएका जनजाती जस्ता भए भन्ने नयाँ नेता र भरौटे इतिहासकारका कुरा पनि छन् नै । सुदुरपश्चिम का ठकुरी हौ भनेर नाक नाप्ने हरुले समेत यसै भन्छन ।
काठमाण्डौ उपत्याका मल्ल राजा हरुलाई तत्कालिन समयमा नेवारहरुले  ठुकु जा भन्दथे , यसको अर्थ ठकुरी राजाको संक्षिप्त रुप नै हो । भन्ने बेलामा पहिचान पाइसकेका उच्च जाति ठकुरी भनेर सत्तो सराप हाल्ने वर्ग र त्यहि वर्गका सदस्यले सोधेको र उही वर्गका सदस्यले उत्तर दिदा कहिले वाहुन - क्षेत्री जस्ता र कहिले गुरुङ - मगर जस्ता भनेर विशेषण लगाएर परिचय दिइने  यो  ठकुरी को हो ?
अब हामीले बुझ्ने प्रयास गर्ने कि ? यो कुराको बृस्तित जानकारीको लागि यो ब्लग पढ्दै गर्नु होला .......|

इतिहासकार डोर बहादुर विष्टले आफ्नो पुस्तक 'सबै जातको फुलबारीमा' ठकुरी भनेको कुनै एक जात नभई बिभिन्न जात हरु र तिनीहरुबाट परिस्कृत भएको एउटा शक्तिशाली समुह ठकुरी हो भनेका छन् | उनले '' ठकुरी भन्नाले कुनै एक विषेश जाति नजनाई खस, मगर , गुरुङ, तथा भोटेहरु मध्यबाट छानिएको एउटा उच्च सामाजिक र राजनीतिक प्रतिष्ठा भएको समूह जनाउँछ''  भनेका छन् | ठकुरी हरुलाई राम्रो अध्ययन गर्न ठकुरी गाउँ मा गएर आध्यान गर्न पनि चुनौती दिएका छन् ।

डोर बहादुर बिष्ट ले निम्न कुराहरु( People of Nepal) मा उल्लेख गरेका छन् :-

पेज ३
If the average ambitious Khas, and later on Magars, aspired to be Chhetris, the most powerful ones became Thakuris during the medival period. So at present Thakuri is a generic term describing a group that developed into the highest social and political order out of select people from among Khas, Magar, and possibley a few Rajput immigrants from India.

..................................................

फेरी गोर्खा राजाहरुको वंशजको बारेमा भने अंग्रेजी लेखक हेमिल्टनले यसरी लेखेका पनि छ न

Gorkha, I was informed, was always completely unconnected, and independent of all these alliances; nor did I learn that Dhurkot or Tarki were in a contrary situation.


I shall now proceed to give an account of the chiefs who governed this assembly of states, and of their countries.


I have already given an account of the family of highest rank, including the Rajas of Palpa, Tanahung, Rising, Ghiring, and Gajarkot; because this family possessed also large estates to the east of Nepal Proper. It therefore remains to describe the other 19 states.


I shall first mention the family which at present has obtained almost universal empire over the mountains north from the Company’s provinces, and does not content itself with a gentle rule, such as that exercised by the Rajas of Yumila, but has seized the entire dominion and power of the conquered countries, and assumes a menacing countenance even to the Company.


The family pretends to be of the Pamar tribe; but it is alleged, as I have already explained, that this is a mere fable, and that, on the arrival of the colony from Chitaur, this family were Magars. One of its branches, however, has long adopted the Hindu rules of purity, and has intermarried with the best families, although not without creating disgust; and the other branch remains in primitive impurity, although we have seen that the same is the case with the Chauhans, who long pretended to a great superiority over the chiefs of Gorkha.


The first persons of the Gorkha family, of whom I have heard, were two brothers named Khancha and Mincha, or Nimcha, words altogether barbarous, and in no manner resembling the high sounding titles of the family of the sun, from whom the Pamars pretend to be descended. From whence these persons came, I did not learn; but Khancha was the founder of the p. 241impure branch of the family, and Mincha was the chief of Nayakot.|


Khancha र Mincha or Nimcha भन्दा अगाडिको वंशलाई भाषा वंशवाली अनुसार भारत देखि आएका हुन भनेर उल्लेख गरिएको पाइन्छ | तर ह्यामिल्टनले उक्त कुरा उल्लेख नै गरेका छैनन् | यसलाई उनले ठाडो उल्लंघन गरि आफ्नो तर्क पेश गरेका छन् जुन माथि उल्लेख भै सकेको छ | माथिको तर्क सादुराम उपाध्याय र तत्कालिन राजाका काका समर वहादुरलाई सोधेको प्रश्नको उत्तर देखि उनि असन्तुष्ट भएर लेखेका थिए |

यसरी नै William Brook Northey ले आफ्नो पुस्तक Land of The Gurkhas - or The Himalayan Kingdom of Nepal भन्ने पुस्तकमा निम्न कुरा उल्लेख गरेका छन्

Of the large number of tribes however into which the Gurkhas are grouped, the chied are the Thakur, Chetri or Khas, Newars, Gurung, Magar, Rai, Limbu, Sunwar and Tamang, to which should be added also the Brahamans, though these can hardly be described perhaps as Gurkhas proper. They occupy, however, the same high social standing that they do in India and it is from their ranks that the official priesthood of the country is exclusively drawn.
Of the other tribes I have mentioned, the pure – blooded Thakur occupies the highest social standing- the Brahman excepted – of all Gurkhas. They claim royal descent, and the head of their best clan the sahi or sah is the king of Nepal himself. Very intelligent, smart in appearance, and endowed with the highest military qualities, the Thakur is the beau-ideal of Gurkha solder. While, owing to their Rajput ancestry, in appearance Thakurs resemble Chetris in certain cases, the majority are hardly distinguishable from the Mongolian looking Magars or Gurungs. I have already spoken of the Khas or Chetris is my reference to Moslem invasion during the twelfth century. Owing to the strain of Indian blood that runs in their veins, they differ greatly in appearance from the purely Mongolian tribes, being generally taller, and less thick-set, and without the strongly Mongolian cast of countenance that the others possess,



फेसबुकमा एकजना मित्र Arun A Malla बाट लिखित यो लेख अत्यन्त सान्दर्विक र तर्कसम्बत लागेर मैले कपी एंड पेष्ट गरेको पनि छु |


From Facebook


Arun A Malla.

IN SEARCH OF A MEANING OF THE WORD: ‘THAKURI’

Historically speaking, Raja Amshuburma, the father of a legendary Princess Vrikuti, and a powerful ruler of Nepal in the early 7th century AD, is known to have belonged to a “Thakuri” Vamsha.

We don’t know exactly when Thakuri became a caste in Nepal, but what we know, for sure, is that the term has been in use for several centuries now.

We also don’t know the true meaning of it, but my little research revealed, that it was the term the rulers of 22 and 24 principalities -- which spread before unification throughout the mid and far-western regions of Nepal -- would use to identify them.

Based on this, can we safely assume Thakuri means ‘the ruling clans’? I certainly think so. Even the founder of modern Nepal, ”Prithvi Narayan Shah, the Great” belonged to this group.

However, what is interesting is that I’ve found a bizarre attempt of linking the founder of modern Nepal to a certain group of people, most specifically, the “Magars,” claiming that he was a Magar King [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magars.] For people who are not Thakuris, it could very well be a believable story, but to someone like me -- a pure blooded, ‘Jhurra Thakuri’ -- I’m like: “Oh, com’n, you morons!”

Today Thakuris come in all shapes and sizes, and they are found to have settled all over the country. Although majority of them are concentrated in the Western and Far-Western regions of Nepal, some or very few of them, still live in the Eastern parts of the country. It was so because during unification, Thakuris played crucial roles in defeating the Kirantis of the East, and some Thakuris with commanding roles and authorities, naturally remained there to maintain sovereignty over the newly won territories.

As far as I know, the main Thakuri Caste can be divided into many sub-castes, but the most prominent among them are: Malla, Shah, Khand, Singh, Sen, Pal, Chand, and Shahi. And Thakuris bearing above surnames claimed their own territories, establishing their own independent principalities, which we all know as 22 and 24 principalities.

Moreover, the several surnames that Thakuri use today initially appear to have been adopted as titles. For example, according to my own family genealogy report, called Vamshavali, my surname ‘Malla’ was believed to have been a title, and before my ancestors were a Malla, they were Shahi, which itself was a title.

Additionally, since I can only talk about my side of the story, according to my somewhat unscientific study, there are only three types of Mallas (excluding the Mallas of Katmandu Valley -- well, they were also Thakuri but became 'Newar', a linguistic community, in order to rule the valley's inhabitants) belonging to Thakuri Clans: (1) Malla of Sinja Valley, Jumla (2) Malla of Kingdom of Parbat, the great Malla Khandan to which I belong to, and (3) the Medhasi Malla.

Let’s assume we all know the Mallas of Sinja and the Mallas of Parbat, as they are historically significant group of people. But who are “Medhasi Malla?”

Well, they are also Thakuri but they differ in one thing, that is, they once had surnames other than Malla. For a reason or two, they decided to abandon their original surnames. For example, the Malla of Dhurkot, are Suryabanshi Chautariya Shah but they adopted the Malla surname. Despite sharing the same surname, it’s one reason why Malla of Parbat and Malla of Dhurkot marry each other.

Similarly, there are Thakuris whose ancestors were Shahis or Mallas but now they’ve become Shah, yet they’re still keeping their old Gotra - Atri. The reason of this is, because once powerful Raja Malebam Shahi of Jumla, my original ancestor had divided his vast kingdom among his four sons: (1) Jagat Singh Shahi (1st son, king of Jajarkot) (2) Pitambar Shahi (2nd son, king of Rukum) (3) Suratna Shahi (3rd son, king of Salyan) (4) Sumati Shahi (4th son, king of Darna). It is believed that the descendants of these four sons later adopted different surnames, yet their Gotra remained the same.

Incidentally, Shahs of Gorkha were Khands, as we know it. We're also aware of one very public information, that is, King Prithvi Narayan Shah had changed his Gotra and sub-caste to separate himself from other Khands and Shahs, so he could kill his own brethren and remain free from the sin of ‘Gotra Hatya’.

By looking at this, it becomes so important to look at one’s Vamsha and Gotra. Knowing one’s Gotra is important for many reasons, but most important reason of all is to avoid marrying one’s own cousins. It is a sin or ‘paap’ to marry one's own cousins, and it was true then, and it is true now.

Despite this, Thakuris have one very bad tradition, and that is, we marry our own cousins from maternal sides. We can all guess why we do that but there is one obvious explanation for it.

Thakuri kings wanted to keep their wealth, power, and family secrets within the family, and what more effective way there could be than marrying their own cousins, the maternal uncles’ daughters?

However, time has come to end this barbaric tradition. Genetically, there is no difference between maternal and paternal cousins. Having practiced this tradition of marrying one’s own cousins for centuries, it could be one reason why we, Thakuris, - I’m sorry to say this - are not as smart as we think we are.

We can safely assume that our genetic abnormality -- let’s call it our stupidity -- is the direct consequential result of this unholy matrimony.

Let's face it, we are not bright people. It's a fact.

No wonder, people call us - “Murkha Thakuri” because we can't seem to manage our anger easily and get upset for no obvious reasons (one reason why British India, calling us 'Martial People' loved to hire us); we do poorly in schools and seeking knowledge is against our religion; we’re lazy in the most part and refuse to accept work that is considered low by our myopic standard; we don't work as hard as we should, and as a result we fall behind; we love to party whenever we can and unnecessarily flaunt our fast-depleting wealth; we glorify our past even if there is no evidence to prove it; and we talk trash about others and treat them badly whenever we can.

Listen to this, my people, -- the Thakuris -- the world has changed immensely right before our eyes, yet we haven’t changed. If we let this trend to continue, we may even face extinction in future, because those who can survive are the ones who can adapt.

Let’s make adaptability - whatever it means - our common mantra. It’s great we know our past and we are proud of it, but knowing past alone doesn’t secure a bright future; we have to work for it. Forget those days when things came to you on silver platter. Those days are long gone. We even lost the Thakuri King, the last great hope of Thakuris. We won’t know our future unless we work to build one. Now is the time to do just that!

Good luck and God bless, the Thakuris!

On a side note, below is the list of 22 and 24 principalities which we, Thakuris, ruled once upon a time.

I’ve borrowed the list from a another source; however, I do strongly encourage you all, the proud Thakuris, to go through it if time permits.